13th Goddess – The Gynocentric Hypothesis

Posted on Sunday, November 14th, 2010

The Minoan snake goddess displays Gynocentic art

Roxanne’s research centered around the Gynocentric Hypothesis.

The following is a brief summary:

The Gynocentric way of life dominated in Europe and the Near East for most of humanity’s existence. This way of life can be found in archaeological sites dating from the Paleolithic (34,000 BP) and lasting for nearly 30,000 years. Though lifeways altered as cultures adapted to different environmental conditions, the Gynocentric cultural component varied little. However, around 7,000 BP a new cultural pattern arose which archaeologists call Kurgan. The Kurgan people developed, their way of life bound by a unique bond between man and horse. This exclusive relationship fostered a male-dominated world, with male-led religion, male-lineage tracing, male-owned property, and a propensity for organized warfare. The Kurgans arose on the Steppes of Russia and swept across Europe about 6,500 BP, conquering every Gynocentric civilization in its path. The last remaining Gynocentric people, the Minoans, were overpowered around 3,500 BP, bringing an end to this long-lasting way of life. Virtually all of today’s cultures are an expression of the Kurgan way of life.[i]

Gynocentric Components

  • Lineage traced through female line
  • Property (especially houses) owned by females
  • Village leadership shared equally between male and female
  • Little evidence of organized warfare
  • Goddess figurines are present but there is an absence (or very little presence) of male figurines
  • Art is emphasized rather than martial expressions
  • Females generally buried beneath the floors of their houses, males elsewhere
  • Very little evidence of accumulations of individual wealth

Gynocentric Archaeological Cultural Expressions

Black-The Gynocentic culture :  Bold-The Male-controlled culture : Italics-Goddess name

  • 34,000 BP: Paleolithic : Dolni Vestonice, Czech Rep: Venus Goddess
  • 25,000 BP: Paleolithic: Willendorf, Austria: Venus Goddess
  • 11,000 BP: Natufian: Ain Ghazal, Jordan: Natufian Goddess
  • 9,500 BP: Neolithic: Çatal Hüyük, Turkey:  Leopard Goddess
  • 8,000 BP: Neolith/Chalcolithic: North Mesopotamia, Iraq: Hassuna Goddess
  • 7,700 BP: Neolithic: Nicea, Greece: Sesklo Goddess
  • 7,000 BP: Neolithic/Chalcolithic: Anatolia, Turkey: Anatolian Goddess
  • 7,000 BP: Neolithic: Vinča-Belo Brdo, Yugoslavia: Vinča Goddess
  • 6,300 BP: Sredny Stog: Dereivka, Ukraine: Kurgan Warrior
  • 4,800 BP: Sumarian: Babylon, Iraq: Ishtar Goddess
  • 3,800 BP: Crete: Knossos, Crete: Snake Goddess
  • 3,700 BP: Sumarian: Ur-Babylon, Iraq: Goddess Ningal
  • 3,500 BP: Crete: Knossos, Crete: Priestess

[i] Much of the evidence for this hypothesis has been advanced by the eminent archaeologist, Marija Gimbutas (1921-1994), and the social activist scholar, Riane Eisler.

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